Eurocentric Perception of Pre-Colonial Africa Justice Administration Process

Eurocentric Perception of Pre-Colonial Africa Justice Administration Process


Every society has its own methods of controlling the social order to achieve a decorous culture; hence the essence of the legal framework cannot be denied. So, the criminal justice system delivers among other things, corrective procedure by which social deviants are brought in conformity with societal norms.

The African society is not an exception to this precept and in fact an epitome of operative customary criminal justice system, which though largely unwritten before the advent of colonialism, integrated a lush African culture unto its civilization. The post-independence era of most African countries however, bestowed utter aversion to these hitherto entrenched opulent customary criminal justice administration, downrightly reducing the system to nothing including those of the Nigerian customary criminal law.

Influenced by the received English law system, most postcolonial African countries are currently faced with the question of reconciling contradicting and often negating foreign law enforcement methods. The negative attitudes towards the African customary law practices have naturally stemmed from the lack of genuine efforts by the postcolonial African States to manage or resolve the unconventionalities for the overall good of the people, aggravating social instability stemming from breakdown of moral values; personal discontent, alienation, and anxieties of rampant conflict situations.

Nigeria, while not by any means the only postcolonial African State in this situation, typifies immersed brashness of imperialists Eurocentrism that is sequestered in primordial convictions of the Western world. Whereas, successive postcolonial governments have ignored to fervently resist negative tolerance of African indigenous law enforcement and social control mechanisms; thus, the native law systems have persisted and remain widely practiced throughout the continent.

This article hence aims to discuss remodeling of law enforcement in postcolonial Africa to reflect the uniqueness of the indigenous peoples, to remedy foreign abhorrence of the African justice process in insolence of preserving the bath-water after throwing away the baby.

The fields of criminal justice administration and particularly criminology only appreciably developed in the recent years. The main concentration as a consequence, being in the English speaking countries and Western European countries that presaged a state of western dominance of especially the historical criminology, making the western countries to pride themselves of many patterns of work in some areas of these fields.

In Britain for example there are a great number of documented commentaries that relate to the history of crime and crime control (see Emsley, 2002; Gattrell et. al., 1980; Godfrey, 1999).  Conversely, the dearth of criminological writings is a stumbling block to the African continent, even if there have been a marked change, as several authors have begun to advance this field (See Ebbe (ed.) 1996, 2000; Onwudiwe, 2000). Yet, the historical criminology of Africa is under-researched.

Additionally, penmanship of pre-colonial African history, especially those of sub-Saharan West Africa were largely ignored by mainstream academia since the authors that contributed to the field (for example, Karenga, Diop, Walker) were (at best) acclaimed for limited inquiry into Black (African) history. Whereas advances that paralleled …

Gender Theory

Alusine M. Kanu DA

Gender’ refers to the socially constructed roles, responsibilities, identities and expectations assigned to men and women. It contrasts with the fundamental biological and physiological differences between males and females, which are known as secondary sex characteristics. Gender roles differ between cultures and communities and over time. For many, gender is always thought about in binary terms: man/woman; masculine/feminine. Expectations of women and men are limited by these binaries, and are communicated through sex role stereotyping. These stereotypes limit gender appropriate behavior to a range of rigid roles which are assigned to women and men on the basis of their gender, for example, ‘women are nurturers’, and ‘men are aggressors’. These role expectations are subtle and deeply ingrained however there is great diversity in how individuals express their gender which frequently does not conform to these stereotypes. Not all women fit the stereotypical expectations of femininity, not all men fit those qualities associated with masculinity.

A theory of gender in communication1 is proposed by Dr. Anita Taylor, Emeritus Professor of Communication at George Mason University.  Primarily, Taylor generated explanations that account for the impact of gender in communication, whether the macro level of cultural discourse or the micro levels of interpersonal interaction or individual identity. In her literature review, Dr. Taylor pointed out that women should not be disadvantaged compared with men.  She added that the thing to note about the feminist movement is that there has never been one feminist theory or feminist movement.  Out of what seems like Feminist Theory is the development of Gender Theory.2 This illustrates complexity in coming up with a single theory.

Gender-related communication is much like cross-cultural communication in that the differences that being male or female create in communication and behaviors are potential barriers to communication effectiveness. The topic of gender and communication refers to the specific communication behaviors that a person uses because of being either male or female. In its demand for equality for women, “feminism sets itself in opposition to most cultures on earth.”  “Multiculturalism demands respect for all cultural traditions, while feminism,” according to Cohen and Howard (1999) “respects only traditions that indeed deserve respect”.3 Since we are destined to live in a two-gender world, and because many of our most significant interactions will be with people of the opposite gender, it is self evident that this area of study is important.  Add to this idea the finding that women’s communication is treated differently—and usually valued less-than men’s communication, and you can readily see that a basic inequality exists in society.  This inequality leads to women’s relative absence from top positions in virtually every area of academic, business, civic, and political life.  Not only is this situation unfair to women, it also costs every society in which it occurs untold amounts of energy because only part of society’s resources are being used. Studying gender and communication can help everyone to understand the realities of gender-related differences in communication instead of perpetuating assumptions about male-female …

Discover Precious Coins with GovMint Key Codes

Building a collection of something usually costs a ton of money – especially if it’s a collection of money. I’m talking here about coin collecting. While people have gathered and hoarded coins, old and new, for their bullion or artistic value for as long as coins have been minted, nowadays it’s getting harder to keep up. That’s why collectors are using hobby and collectibles coupon codes so that they can acquire stuff without regretting whatever it is that they are buying and collecting. After all, it’s no use carrying on a hobby that one cannot afford in the first place.

Can one afford to collect coins? Are you serious about amassing a collection of ancient, medieval, and modern currencies? If so, then you might want to take a look at, which has been dubbed as “Your One Best Source for Coins Worldwide”. Don’t worry: with GovMint key codes, you can collect even the rarest coins from different parts of the world at an affordable price. You can even take advantage of the many great discounts and online deals featured in GovMint’s catalogs. That way, you don’t pay too premium a price to have history in your hands.

At GovMint, coins from nations across the world are represented, and it’s easy to discover modern and ancient specimens in a variety of precious metals worldwide. “Precious” may mean “rare”: some of the coins and currencies you have the opportunity to collect at GovMint may never be available to the general public. That’s because GovMint is an industry leader in coin collecting, with a proven track record and affiliations with the top trade organizations in the numismatic industry. U.S. silver coins, U.S. gold coins, world coins, paper currency, precious metals, shipwreck and treasure coins, gifts, jewelry: all these, you can find and explore at GovMint’s vast catalog. You may choose to simply use the information contained therein as a great information resource, but if you’re a serious coin collector, GovMint is a kind of shopping haven. GovMint key codes are there for you to get the best bargains and deals.

Purchase for the first time from GovMint – or apply for free membership – and you will automatically receive the status of Preferred Customer. As a member of this prestigious club, you get to hear through catalogs and mailings about exclusive offers, online deals, and maybe even coupon codes. You will also have your own personal account manager to make suggestions and help you find items that fit your personal needs and preferences for your collection.

You can be sure it’s going to be a great authentic collection – and not just because of GovMint’s 30-day money-back guarantee. Since 1984, GovMint has worked hard to earn its reputation as a trusted source for old and new coins. Now it has grown to become a member of professional organizations that adhere to the highest standards of excellence and ethics; these include Better Business Bureau of Minnesota, Direct Marketing Association, American Numismatic Association, Industry …

Natural Joint Pain Relief: Relieve Joint Pain Naturally with NO SIDE EFFECTS!

Oh to be young again with pain-free joints! However, if you are like many of us – your joints can be painful and that pain can affect your everyday life. So, what causes this pain and how can you get natural joint pain relief?

Do You Understand Your Joints?

There are many joints in our body. Everywhere our bones meet is a joint. We have 3 different types of joints in our bodies but 2 of them – fibrous and cartilaginous joints – don’t move much, if at all. The most common joint is the synovial joint. This joint moves and can cause serious pain for people. There are 6 different types of synovial joints that give the body the ability to move the way we do. Our elbows and knees are hinge joints. The pivot joint on the top of the neck allows one bone to rotate over another, ball and socket joints make up our hips and shoulders. The last 3 joints called saddle, condyloid and gliding make up the joints in our fingers and toes. What is common to each of these joints is they contain ligaments to anchor bones together, the end of the bones contains a smooth surface of cartilage and a capsule covers the entire joint. This capsule, surrounded by a synovial membrane, creates a cavity filled with fluid. This fluid contains water and nutrients to lubricate the joints and keep things moving smoothly. Joints also contain sacs of fluid called bursa to promote smooth motion. Add the layer of muscles that control joint movement and you can see there are plenty of areas that can get damaged and cause pain. Our joints are complicated structures! 

What Causes Joint Pain?

Joint pain is a common complaint and many conditions can bring it on. Our joints take a lot of abuse and the smooth surfaces can begin to wear off. Once it does bone spurs can grow to cause friction and pain in the joint. Conditions such as gout or bursitis cause inflammation in the joint, which in turn causes pain. Joints are commonly sprained or strained beyond its intended use. When that happens inflammation and bruising can make it impossible to use that part of your body. Modern medicine primarily treats joint pain with anti-inflammatory medications that can wreck havoc on other systems in your body. Many times the side effects are worse than the pain! However, there is a natural way to relieve joint pain.

So How Do You Get SAFE Natural Joint Pain Relief?

Give your body the nutrients it needs to heal and reduce the inflammation with high quality therapeutic grade essential oils. You may not know it but before modern medicine came along, societies had been using essential oils for thousands of years to treat and heal the human body. Many societies still reach for these natural treatments before seeking medical advice. They are time proven to support our body in a healthy natural way. More recently, many scientific studies …

What Are the Average Garage Doors Costs?

Need a new garage door? Wonder how much it’s going to set you back? Here’s some pricing information for you that will help you decide if it’s in your budget. Of course, pricing will vary by the area in which you live, or by shipping if you order online. Most garage doors costs are less expensive when you order online. However, you’ll want to make sure you know how much shipping and delivery will add to the final cost. If you won’t be installing it yourself, then add in installation costs. In some cases, buying from the company who will be completely the installation may be cheaper as well.

Common Sizes

Before you get pricing information, you’ll need to know what size you’re looking for. There are several sizes that are the most common. If you need a special size, you can expect to pay much more. The most common sizes are 8’x7′, 9’x7′, and 16’x7′ for doubles. If you own an SUV or 4×4, you may find it’s not possible fit in and 8’x7′ opening. Increasing the size of the entrance is no small undertaking. You’ll quickly find that the garage doors costs are astronomical if the opening has to be made larger. Costs for Most Common Sizes

The expense of a new model will also depend on the material it’s made from. Steel is the least expensive and custom wood is the usually the most expensive. 8’x7′ sizes made from steel start at about $600. Vinyl in the same size starts around $800. Those made from wood will start about $1200, but that is only for composite wood. Specialty sizes and materials can range anywhere from $2,000 to $7,000. If you need a double sized model, you can expect to pay twice as much. It’s about 10% more for 9’x7′ models and 20-25% more for 8’x8′ and 9’x8′ sizes.

Where to Find the Best Deals

You can find many discount sites that have a variety of sizes and materials available. Some may offer free shipping and delivery, which can save you quite a bit of money. There are also sites that offer pre-owned doors, but you must exercise some caution here. You still want to get a warranty of some sort. There are also sites that deal in factory seconds, which means there may be some blemishes of sorts, but it shouldn’t affect the functionality.

In Closing

You’ll find that most sites list their garage doors costs, which can save you a lot of time in your search. You can also find reviews for many of the companies online, which will give you a decent idea of their level of customer service and their products. It may take a little research, but you can find a really great deal online.

Benefits of Medical Tourism

Now a days medical field has spread its wing by offering overseas treatments at much reasonable costs for everyone to take benefits of. There are a lot of discussion going around the globe to see if there are benefits of medical tourism. Well, today we are going to take a peek in some of these benefits for us while considering any kind of medical tourism.

Medical tourism in simple term is a travel abroad to undergo any medical treatment that you would otherwise find either very costly in the your country or not as well equipped with the recent technology as the country you are traveling to receive that treatment. So if for example, you are from U.S.. and it costs you as an example GBP 20000 for an eye surgery, the same may be done say for example in India for the total sum of GBP 9000 which will not only include the surgery and hospital fees but also include accommodation, follow ups and a holiday feel all in one. This is why so many people today are attracted to this unique concept.

Thus there are many benefits for Medical Tourism. now for the patients who would like to undergo any kind of surgical treatment. Medical tourism gives everyone the opportunity to get best quality of medical treatments at lower costs. Although the costs certainly is the main benefit of medical tourism, the other attraction is the fact that other countries might perform certain treatments that are not available or are restricted in the country of their origin. And while vacation might not be the goal here, people certainly want to recuperate from any treatment while holidaying in their preferred places. There are lots of countries that offer such packages like India, Singapore, Thailand, Brazil, etc.

After information Technology (IT) and Information Technology Enabled Services (IEES), which are now good contributors to our Nation’s GDP, the next great thing happening could be ‘Medical tourism’, which has numerous potential, if rightly captured, to make big contributions to the Nation’s GDP. The following will show a some valid points by the way of expert’s questions vs. opinions offered, current status available with future projections and a some suggestions for making top use of medical tourism towards the development of the nation’s economic prosperity.

The offers available now a days for similar patients are specialized services ranging from cardiology and cardiac surgery (angioplasty, bypass, valve replacement), to oncology and onco-surgery, organ transplants (liver and kidney), bone marrow transplants, joint replacements, eye surgery and in-vitro fertilization. The price difference is significant, as that was for Marshall, for the patients.

Medical tourism is now a days attracting people from all over the world, from countries with comparatively poor healthcare infrastructures and, in case of the US, places with exorbitantly expensive health care services.

Medical tourists from US are generally those seeking procedures not covered by their insurers, those seeking required procedures and who are provided with incentives to find lower cost options, and those …